Week 10: Reflection

I loved reading how my classmates already use play in their classrooms! I never quite realized just how many different ways we as teachers can incorporate play into our classrooms, at any age or grade level.

Ultimately we want our students to be engaged and to collaborate when possible, which will enhance their learning process. Play offers us the ability to provide that for them. Students can work together towards a common learning goal or reward, practicing interpersonal skills while engaging with class content.

After reading the blog posts of my classmates, I realized too that it’s important to tailor the game, rewards, and play activities to the students we have. A game that works with kindergarteners will most likely not work for my 6th or 7th graders— heck, even a game for my 6th graders won’t always work for my 7th graders! BUT if I wanted, I’m sure I could modify a game designed for another grade or age group to fit my needs and those of my students.

As our students evolve as learners, so should the games and play we use in class with them. Play will always be important and a way to enhance the learning process for our students. We should always be looking for ways to incorporate play in our classrooms; Matera provides us will a rich treasure chest of ideas, and my classmates provide a wealth of knowledge and examples of play in their own classrooms, both of which I will use to incorporate more play into my own classes!

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Week 10: How do you currently infuse play into your class? How might you change this as a result of some of the ideas you have encountered?

Currently, “play” in my class, I think, is pretty limited. Occasionally I’ll post a challenge to students to line up a certain way: tallest to shortest, oldest to youngest, alphabetical without talking. That’s a good way to deal with an extra minute or two at the end of class and when students are antsy. We’ve done Kahoot review games in class for topics we’ve covered, or a fun semester review. Or we’ll do a fun Kahoot game as a reward or during a Christmas “party”. Other than that, I’ve been focused on developing engaging lessons without thinking about using “play”.

However, since starting our game assignment for class, I’ve incorporated Classcraft into each of my regular English classes. Students formed teams and chose from three different characters with different powers and abilities. Then they started on a quest to complete prewriting assignments for an upcoming novel writing unit. Students had to work together to determine who should be which player— they shouldn’t have the same, and preferably one of each character in the group. Students earn experiences points (XP) and gold points (GP) for doing things in class, like being ready before the bell, helping a classmate, having a positive attitude, and turning their homework in on time. And they lose health points (HP) for things like being rude in class, not being prepared, and arriving late to class.

Students have been more motivated to help their classmates, though when they do, most make a point of telling me “I helped (student) with her work!” and asking for the XP. So I told them that I’m more inclined to reward the XP if I catch them helping, not when they tell me, and I noticed a decline in those comments and a rise in helpfulness! However, I need to be alert to what all students are doing, which is difficult when I’m also trying to answer questions and give directions; so I catch some students doing good, but not all. But when I offered XP and GP for doing homework (which I rarely assign) I noticed more students did in fact complete the assignment, and rewarded them for it.

With the quest, students are able to work at their own pace and receive GP and XP for completing each objective along the way. This encouraged students to use their class time wisely so that they could complete their quest and move onto the actual novel writing. It also allowed students to move at their own pace, so they didn’t have to wait for the whole class— sometimes they had to wait for me to allow them to move on, but that was because I had trouble linking the objectives from Google Classroom to the one in Classcraft.

When reading about the tools and treasures in Ch. 9 of Matera’s book, I just kept thinking about how they wouldn’t work in my English class. I don’t give tests, so there’s not usually anything to review. However, I kept searching and brainstorming ways to use SOMETHING from that chapter, and the following one. The side quests seem the most plausible to include. We do a lot of reading, both as a class and independently. I could easily assign a side quest during a class novel that would necessitate my students to do background research or deepen their comprehension of the novel or literary concepts within it. When reading Call of the Wild next with my 7th graders, they could write a poem about living in the Yukon during that time period, or create a stamp, or create a map of Buck’s travels throughout the novel. Any of those, or others, would be engaging for my students and relevant to the content of my English class.

I also love the brain breaks and team building ideas. Those don’t take a lot of time and don’t have to be content related. This month my students are writing a novel, and most of the class time will be devoted to typing their novels; this will be a great opportunity to introduce some of these ideas. I really like the Super Silent idea. Even though students would be quietly typing most of the period, it would still be enough of a physical and mental challenge that I could have them do it in the middle or end of class.

Since I’m still learning Classcraft now and we’re in the beginning of a new unit, I’m going to hold off on using the other tools and treasures, for now. But I know that I will be coming back to that section when creating new units. I’m thinking it would definitely be fun to think of Yukon/gold rush themed items and treasures and tools for my students during our Call of the Wild unit! Hopefully that will engage them more than the book usually does!

Week 9: Reflection

After reading the posts from my classmates this week, I saw many different ways of incorporating gaming mechanics into both content and behavior lessons that didn’t seem overwhelming to incorporate into the classroom.

I noticed the same kind of ideas that I wrote about in my initial post. My classmates discussed mechanics that they could add to their classes based on what they already do in their classes. For example, some of my classmates use Class Dojo, and so they could incorporate those DoJo monsters into a fantasy land and have them converse with characters from literature that the students are reading.

I saw how gaming mechanics can spice up lessons that my classmates currently teach. By taking content like composers or famous figures and using them as gaming mechanics to groups students, for example, students are not only learning the content but becoming engaged with it through a game.

Side note: I experimented with my Classcraft theme and story with my 7th graders on Friday. I made a big deal about how all the books in the universe have disappeared, and they have been gathered to author the first novels of the new world. We then did a quickwrite activity based on their homework (creating story sparks) and boy— I have never seen students so excited about writing a story! Whether it was related to the initial game story or not, I got reactions like over half the class sharing their novel idea with the whole class, and a student telling me his novel from last year will be “trash” compared to the one he’s gonna write this year (his words, not mine!). While I haven’t actually had students log into Classcraft or even introduced it to them, they’re now familiar with the story line and I think they’ll  jump WRITE in with the next assignment there!

I think my biggest takeaway is that doing something different with my students, like gamifying my class, can be a bit scary but ultimately rewarding. There are so many ways to do this, that the toughest part might be organizing my ideas to make it work! After reading the ideas of my classmates, I feel inspired to continue incorporating game mechanics into my class.

Week 9: Which aspects of story and game mechanics will be useful in your class and how might you use them?

I’m all about working smarter, not harder, which is a lesson that took me quite some time to learn (just ask my first-year-teacher self!). As I read through all of the game mechanics that I could add into my classroom, I felt a tinge overwhelmed by the thought of adding all of those elements into my classroom! But Matera says “As you Navigate the Waters below, remember to start small.” (Matera, 2015) So I took a step back, and instead considered a) what I’m already doing that I could modify to be a game mechanic and b) which mechanics would be worth spending valuable planning time on.

I’ve started preparing a Classcraft world to use with my students this next unit. Its original function is a classroom management tool, where students are rewarded for good behaviors and points are taken away for misbehaviors. Students choose between three different player types, each with their own abilities. Now, Classcraft can be used as a teaching tool. You can send students on “quests” to complete assignments or compete in “boss battles” for formative reviews. Students level up and can earn or lose points for their whole teams as well as individually. (https://game.classcraft.com/)

The first mechanic that fits both of those ideas are quests. A quest is “a mission with an objective.” Well, each of my lessons and units has an objective— how difficult could it be to turn that into a mission? I’ve started creating a quest on Classcraft for students to develop their novels that they’ll be writing in November. I tried to stick to the medieval theme of the game, and created a story to go along with the task: All the books in the universe have been wiped out and my students are tasked with creating one of the first novels of the new world. Their first task is to create a “spark” or idea for their novel that will “ignite” the rest of their novel. That assignment will be completed within the game, and the rest may be completed in the game or on paper, depending on the task.

The next game mechanic that goes along with the quests and with Classcraft would be experience points (XP) and a leaderboard. I don’t think that assigning gaming points for grades is very fair, so I established XP and health points for submitting the assignment, and extra points for submitting it early. My students are pretty motivated by points, and seem to be competitive. Classcraft allows me to award XP and health points (HP) for things like helping a classmate, being positive in class, answering a question correctly; and allows me to take points away for things like being rude to a classmate, arriving late, being negative in class. While some of those consequences are objective, like arriving late or helping a classmate, I would have to be very careful when taking or giving points for subjective behaviors like positivity or negativity in class. I think to keep from being overwhelmed by looking for ALL those behaviors all the time, I might choose one or two to look for each day or week.

I think having a leaderboard would help inspire teamwork, but it could be something that I don’t want to spend a lot of time on. I might provide weekly updates to the standings, but Classcraft might also provide those statistics for me, which would be ideal! Then students could have a visual on how their behavior and accomplishments affect their standings and that of their group.

The last mechanic I would incorporate at the beginning of a gamified unit would be guilds. My students already love working with partners or groups, so this would be a simple concept to incorporate. It would also draw in those outlying students who choose to sit away from the class and work independently. Not every task would incorporate group work, but students could still be rewarded or punished for the behavior and attitudes of those in their group. I like Matera’s idea of emphasizing each person’s strengths rather than dividing group work evenly, and considering the assets that each member brings to the group. I think that having students think about that would help those groups who are working with classmates they already know to see another side of them. This model is similar to what we’ve learned in Kagan training, but I think the gamified approach and Matera’s ideas will resonate more with our students.

I think, when I start incorporating gamification in my classroom, I’m going to follow Matera’s advice and start small. I will look for ways to fit gamification into what I already do instead of reinventing the wheel, and build up the mechanics as I go, and as my students become more accustomed to the concept. I can’t wait to introduce Classcraft to my students and see where they go on their quests!

 

 

Resources

https://game.classcraft.com/

Matera, M. Explore like a Pirate. Dave Burgess Consulting, Inc. 2015. Print.

Week 8: Reflection

I think my biggest takeaway this week is that our students are often capable of more than we give them credit for. When we raise our expectations for them and modify how we speak to them, they will often surprise us and meet or exceed those expectations.

I loved reading the personal stories that my classmates shared about the way they used the words and ideas of purpose driven learning. From including students in modifying the “rules” of the class to helping students achieve a task created for older students, I read about purpose driven learning in action, and it inspired me to be alert for ways to incorporate it in my own classroom.

Really, I think that high expectations and the key terms of purpose driven learning (confidence, creativity, enthusiasm, effort, focus, resilience, curiosity, dependability, and empathy). When we incorporate those ideas into our classroom, make them a part of our teaching and activities, students are automatically rising to a new situation and new idea. For example, when we encourage resilience, we’re holding them to a higher standard of a growth mindset and learning from failures rather than settling for failure and moving on, or allowing apathy toward their accomplishments (or lack thereof).

Our students really do rise (or lower) themselves to our standards based on how we talk to them and the skills we require of them. After this week’s reading and reading the blogs of my classmates, I’m definitely going to be more aware of how I talk to my students, and perhaps reevaluate the standards I hold them to. I know I fall short and allow students to settle for less than their best; but now I think I’m equipped with ten new concepts to incorporate into my daily lessons.

Week 8: How do you or might you use language to change the way that your students think about learning in the classroom?

I’ve always known that the way we talk to and with our students has an impact on their learning, but this is the first time I’ve considered using gaming-related language in my classroom. In the past, most of our language focus has been on academic language. We want our students to succeed on their standardized tests, and to do that, they have to understand the language of the questions. So we taught our students those words.

But that shouldn’t be the only focus of learning! Matera discusses ten qualities of driven people that he uses to talk to his students: confidence, creativity, enthusiasm, effort, focus, resilience, initiative, curiosity, dependability, and empathy. These are the qualities that make lifelong learners! Academic words, like analyze and compare/contrast and describe, will help students be successful in school and on tests, yes, but they don’t encourage students to become lifelong learners or engage them each day in your classroom.

Of those qualities that might be displayed now in my classroom, I think one of my strengths would be enthusiasm. First of all, English is NOT a subject that all students are naturally inclined to love. Because I know that, I do my best to design activities that will engage students through their personal interests and activities that I myself am excited to teach. Second, I love to read and write in my personal life. I became an English teacher partly because I wanted to instill that love of reading and writing in my students. That makes it easy for me to be enthusiastic about the reading and writing activities in my classroom. Students are more inclined to participate because I’m excited and enthusiastic about what we’re reading or writing about. I’ve even had a student tell me that she looks forward to my class because I’m so energetic and enthusiastic about it! That really warmed my heart =)

I also do my best to praise effort as well as achievement, and to encourage resilience by the way I talk about making mistakes. I have many students who are low in English skills and struggle with certain parts of my class. And I know that students will not be strong at every English skill, whether it’s reading certain text types or writing in certain styles. With writing, I encourage students to just get their ideas down first, and we revise later. It’s perfectly acceptable, and encouraged, to make mistakes when writing, especially if they’re trying something new! The successes come when they revise their writing to make it better, often more than once. Students are able to see that it takes more than one shot to create a polished piece of writing, and that even after you turn it in, there is always room for improvement. As long as students try, they have multiple opportunities to improve.

Lastly, English is a great subject to encourage creativity! When reading, students are often encouraged to make inferences about what they’re reading, and my seventh graders have a knack for thinking outside the box with their predictions! I also do my best to provide a variety of assessments for final projects. The assessments (hopefully) appeal to each different type of learner, which allows them to demonstrate their learning in a way in which they will excel. But I think the quality of creativity is best seen in their writing. In writing, I think resilience and effort go hand in hand with creativity. In order to write fiction, by definition students have to make something up— to be creative. This is a struggle for some students! For others, they take the opportunity and run with it, writing six pages when most of their classmates wrote one or two. Just recently I had a father email me about his son’s grade, and mentioned that his son struggles with assignments that call for creativity, like drawing pictures to represent a word. He was worried about his nonfiction narrative, where students had to tell a true story about a tough decision or challenge they faced. I graded his son’s story today and let me tell you— I was on the seat of my pants! That child turned a battle on Fortnite into an engaging narrative by using sensory language and emotions, just like we discussed in class. I remember talking with him about this as he was writing his rough draft, and I simply encouraged him to try, to think about what he felt and how he could convey that to his reader. To me, he is a prime example of how encouraging resilience, effort, and creativity in our students will show in their work.

On that vein, it is important to know the “gamer types” in our classroom. Based on that student’s work, I think he’s more of an achiever. He set a goal to win a solo battle, and he succeeded. Knowing that, I could design or present future assignments in a way that he can apply that mentality to the assignment. I do my best to create groups based on mixed abilities as well as personalities, but by understanding the gamer types of my classroom, as outlined by Matera, I could better understand the motives behind the actions of my students. I could make groups with one of each gamer type: achiever, killer (griefer), explorer, and socializer. Students would benefit by working with classmates who display complimentary skills and strengths in mixed groups, or working together with students who share the same traits.

After reading chapters four and five of Matera’s book, I want to work on incorporating the remaining 7 qualities in my classroom. While they might show up occasionally in my teaching, I believe now that they are important enough to focus on daily, and as often as I can. By incorporating gamification into my classroom as Matera did, these elements will hopefully become embedded in my teaching by their very nature. By combining the ten qualities of driven people with the knowledge of my student’s gamer types, I can plan to my students’ strengths and encourage them to become lifelong learners.

 

Resources

Matera, M. Explore like a Pirate. Dave Burgess Consulting, Inc. 2015. Print.

Week 7: Reflection

I think my biggest takeaway from this week was just how useful understanding our students as gamers can be in our classroom. Even if students aren’t gamers, they could have a gamer identity. When I took the Bartle test, I didn’t have a lot of experience with most of the scenarios as I am not a “gamer”. But I’ve played enough games and know of enough games that I was able to hypothesize my answer. And since we game the way we live, I considered how I would react in each scenario presented in the test based on my values. Long story short, all of our students fall under a gamer type.

If I’m aware of this as a teacher, then I can plan my groups and lessons and activities according to the skills, strengths, abilities, and interests of  my students based on their gamer type. I can have students with the same gamer type work on a project that is geared toward their particular gamer type, or I can have each gamer type represented in a group to work on an activity that requires skills or interests of each type.

Another thing that struck me is when a classmate wrote about how game design doesn’t sell the game— the elements of the game like art, sound, characters, and experiences sell the game. I think that teaching is the same way. It isn’t sitting in a classroom and hearing information that causes students to learn— it’s the experience of the learning process, the social interactions, and the creativity or art that is present in the the learning process.

A final thought: We want to engage our students with the learning process. We can choose to meet them where they’re at, which right now is a culture of gaming. Virtually all of our students have played games of some kind, whether video or computer or traditional board game, and if not, then they know someone who does— they have some kind of experience with gaming. Since this is the case, we should incorporate their gamer type in our classrooms, even if we only consider it a lens though which they learn and see the world. By incorporating their learning style, and relating that to gaming (something they’re familiar with) we will hopefully engage them in the learning process to a greater extent.

Week 7: What is the implication of player type on game design?

As I read about the different gamer types and related classroom behaviors, I couldn’t help but draw connections to the various styles of learning or learning modalities that my professors introduced to us in college. My undergraduate education professors taught us that everyone is one of three learners, with some overlap: visual, tactile/kinesthetic, or auditory. Basically, people either learn by seeing the content, hearing it, or physically manipulating it. In addition, we learned about 8 other learning styles:

  1. The Linguistic Learner
  2. The Naturalist
  3. The Musical or Rhythmic Learner
  4. The Kinesthetic Learner
  5. The Visual or Spatial Learner
  6. The Logical or Mathematical Learner
  7. The Interpersonal Learner
  8. The Intrapersonal Learner

To me, the different gamer types nearly parallel this concept of learning styles. Bartle (1996) classified the four gamer types as: achievers, explorers, socializers and killers. Achievers are most concerned with earning more points or going further than anyone, reaching goals they’ve set, and doing this the quickest. Explorers care the most about learning the various functions and elements of the game world, gathering information, and making discoveries. Socializers are most interested in interacting with the other players and getting to know them. Killers use their powers and abilities to manipulate other players, occasionally for good but usually not, and get their kicks from killing other players.

Most players, and thus students, fall into one of those four categories, but with overlap into others. Dan Dixon (2011) is quick to point out that while these four types are not mutually exclusive as Bartle claims, and the test is not valid, there is overlap or mixing between the types, and further research has given more support to these claims. Dixon also provides research on a new model based on those four original types:

  • Achievement: Advancement, Mechanics, Competition
  • Social: Socialising, Relationship, Teamwork
  • Immersion: Discovery, Role-playing, Customization, Escapism

In citing this research, Dixon says that “Yee is careful not to describe his work as player types. They are overlapping sets of psychological and social ‘motivations’ based on player behaviour and preferences.” This framework, bulleted above, provides a finer outline of the types Bartle first presented. The killer player type is delineated into the competition and advancement subcategory. The explorer type has also be separated between the discovery and mechanics subcomponent.

What I enjoyed most was reading about how to incorporate these gamer types in the classroom. Not a day goes by that I don’t hear about Fortnite, or some other game my kids are into, so this was a goldmine of information! Douglas Kiang outlines each player type in a more positive manner compared to Bartle (in my opinion) and how they might act in the classroom. According to Kiang, my students who are explorers are the ones whose sense of achievement comes from knowing the most information, learning just to learn something new, and the ones who will do an entire project or assignment— and not turn it in (I definitely am already picturing some of my students as this type!). My achievers will be the students who are most concerned about their grade, scores on assignments, and being the top in their class (again, several students come to mind!). My socializers are the ones who care most about talking to their friends and classmates, and who thrive when working in groups. Perhaps the most enlightening descriptions was that of the killers. While Bartle describes the killers as receiving their pleasure through the pain and downfall of other players, Kiang described them as the students who have a growth mindset! While, yes, they do tend to act without concern for the consequences of their actions, they’re also the risk takers. They make mistakes and get back up again because in the gaming world, they’re often killed and start over with nothing.

Kiang detailed how he would organize groups, keeping in mind the various gamer types. Depending on the task, he would either have a group with diverse types in order to collaborate and utilize each of their strengths, or homogenous groups with only one gamer type in order to accomplish a particular task based on the strength of each type. This is just how I might organize groups based on the learning styles mentioned earlier!

My biggest takeaway is that we can use the knowledge of the “gamer types” in our classrooms to play to our students’ strengths. We build a classroom community by getting to know our students as individuals; understanding their “gamer type” is another layer of that, and one that provides a more psychological understanding of their actions and emotions and motives (Dixon, 2011). And once again, since gaming is a part of most of their personal cultures now, we might as well incorporate it into our classrooms in a way that benefits everyone!

 
Resources

Bartle, R. Players Who Suit MUDs. Retrieved from http://mud.co.uk/richard/hcds.htm

Kiang, D. Use the Four Gamer Types to Help Your Students Collaborate. Retrieved from https://edtechteacher.org/use-the-four-gamer-types-to-help-your-students-collaborate-from-douglas-kiang-on-edudemic/

Dixon, D. Player Types and Gamification. Retrieved from https://classes.alaska.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-6026899-dt-content-rid-68781989_1/courses/EDET_S679_JD1_201803/Player%20Types%20and%20Gamification.pdf

Verma, E. At Your Fingertips: The 8 Types of Learning Styles. Retrieved from https://www.skillsyouneed.com/rhubarb/fingerprints-learning-styles.html

 

Week 6: Reflection

Wow! I really enjoyed this week’s topic. It made me think about my own teaching strategies and how gamification fits in with current classroom research.

Overall, I learned from my research and that of my classmates that personalized learning is one key to engaging our students. When their learning is personalized to their needs and interests, as it can be with blended learning and gamification, students are more engaged with the content because it is relevant to who they are and where they’re going.

Today’s students are different than generations passed, and that relevance is another key factor for their engagement. Today’s students need to understand the importance of what they’re learning and why they’re learning it in order to become engaged with it. Gone are they days where they learn because that’s what school is for. In this age of information, they want to know what the content has to do with them.

I also am beginning to see how accessible gamification and personalization can be in the classroom. At first, when considering I teach four English classes, roughly 90 students total, the thought of creating games and personalizing the learning for EACH STUDENT seems overwhelming! But hearing from my classmates and how they incorporate games in class and work to personalize the learning path of their students, I see how teachers do it in real life, and I’m more inspired to work at it myself. As Matera said, we’re teaching students— individuals with passions and pursuits of their own— not standards. I know that if I keep this in mind, personalization will seem less daunting and more vital to my instruction, and the needs of my students.

Week 6: What research supports or refutes Matera’s claims?

In chapter 3, “New World, Old World” (Explore Like a Pirate, 2015), Matera made several claims stuck out to me that I wanted to research a little further. The first claim is the idea of personalized learning and its affect on student motivation. Matera claims “students want a personalized and a sense of autonomy.” When I researched “personalized learning”, I found an article by Michael B. Horn and Heather Staker that explored the concept of blended learning. They provide the definition of blended learning as “any time a student learns at least in part at a supervised brick-and-mortar location away from home and at least in part through online delivery with some element of student control over time, place, path, and/or pace.” For example, high school students taking courses online and at their high school campus could be considered blended learning.

What does this mean for personalized learning? Well, online courses as described in “The Rise of K-12 Blended Learning” offer students the opportunity to “learn at their own pace, use preferred learning modalities, and receive frequent and timely feedback on their performance for a far higher quality learning experience.” These are some of the same characteristics of gamification, and the key to personalized learning. Horn and Staker even compare the practice of blended learning at one campus, Carpe Diem learning center, to a game:

Just as in a video game, students do not move on to the next level or unit until they have passed. As students move through each task, the software displays their progress in a bar along the top of the webpage. he progress bar moves from red, to yellow, to green, and then to blue if they are ahead of pace. he software provides continual feedback, assessment, and incremental victory in a way that a face-to-face teacher with a class of 30 students never could. After each win, students continue to move forward at their own pace.

Horn and Staker also point out the success of a charter management organization, Rocketship Education, that also utilizes blended learning. The two schools in that system have the two “highest-performing low-income elementary schools in Santa Clara County and [are] ranked in the top 15 among all California schools with low-income populations of at least 70 percent.”

I believe their findings support Matera’s claim that personalized learning enhances student motivation and provides them with the autonomy they seek. In a blended learning environment, students are relatively free to choose their learning path and courses they want to take from those provided. They are offered the support they need on an individual level rather than receiving instruction that is too high or too low for their current ability level. And they are provided immediate feedback on their progress. These are the elements of gamification that we’ve learned about that make gamification a success in the classroom.

Matera also claims that “inspiring self-motivated learning is the key.” We need to embrace who our students are and what makes them unique, and incorporate their passions and interests into our instruction/their learning process. Personalized learning, and blended learning, allow that to happen. While we have a curriculum and content and standards that we need to teach, we are (usually— hopefully!) still able to be flexible enough to allow student interests a place at the table. Personalized and blended learning provide a pathway to do that. If students are able to work at their own pace, on something that is interesting to them, and provided with the support and feedback they need, they will be more motivated to learn for the sake of learning than simply because they’re told what they need to know.

I think that while there will always be challenges or pushback to doing things differently than we’ve done them before, it’s worth it to try something new if the research and evidence support it. To me, the concepts of personalized learning, blended learning, and gamification will sometimes be challenging to incorporate, it seems like they are all valid ways of motivating students and enhancing their learning in our classrooms.

 

Resources

Matera, M. Explore like a Pirate. Dave Burgess Consulting, Inc. 2015. Print.

Horn, Michael B., and Heather Staker. “The rise of K-12 blended learning.” Innosight institute 5 (2011).